Everything English

Writing and Grammar Tips (beta)


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Category : Mechanics

i.e. vs. e.g.

Consider the following pairs of examples:

Here is a variety of dry fruits, i.e., fruits that are dried to remove moisture.

Eddy is fond of eating dry fruits, e.g., fig, apricot, raisins, prunes, dates, etc.

The hospital is working towards prevention of communicable diseases, i.e., infectious diseases that are transmitted from person to person.

The hospital is working towards prevention of communicable diseases, e.g., malaria, gastroenteritis, dengue, measles, etc.

My kids love wind instruments, i.e., instruments that produce music by the vibrating sounds of air.

My kids love musical instruments, i.e., clarinet, harmonica, trumpet, flute, etc.

In the first example in each of the above pairs, “i.e.” is followed by a specific explanation to what has been said preceding it (i.e.). So the second part of the sentence (after i.e.) talks about the first part as a matter of explaining the preceding part.

In the second example in each of the above pairs, “e.g.” is followed by specific examples about what has been said before it (e.g.). So the second part of the sentence (after e.g.) talks about the first part by way of citing examples.

Both i.e. and e.g. are Latin abbreviations for “id est” (meaning, that is) and “exempli gratia” (meaning, for example) respectively, but their usage has been established in English as well. So “i.e.” and “e.g.” are written without italics. In American English, i.e. and e.g. are invariably followed by a comma while forming sentences.

A good tip to remember their exact usage:

i.e. = in other words

e.g. = example

Affect vs. Effect

Here is a comparative study of the homonyms—affect and effect.

AFFECT EFFECT
is a verb is a noun
It means “to influence,” “going to happen,”  “to set off a consequence,” etc It means “a result of,”
It must be pronounced with an “a” (as in, “a” for apple, arrow, ate, ant,  etc) It must be pronounced with an “e” (as in “e” for eagle, eat, eager, etc)
The trick is to remember “Affect” as something that will happen to bring about an affect. The trick is to remember “effect” as something that has happened because of the affect of something.
Therefore, affect is followed by effect. Therefore, effect is the consequence of an affect.
Examples for “affect:” Examples for “effect:”
The medicine affects the kidney. The effect of the medicine on the kidney was encouraging.
The poison affected the roots of the plant. In effect, the roots of the plant got burnt.
Moonrise affects the waves and tides. The high waves and tides are the effect of moonrise.
The nuclear deal between the two countries affected their otherwise cordial relationship. The effect of the nuclear deal impacted the relationship between the two countries.
What affected her throat?

The water affected her throat.

What was the effect of the water on her throat?

The effect of the water on her throat was fatal.

Can be used in phrases like “after-effect,” “side-effect,” “with effect from,” etc.

To vs. Too vs. Two

To, too, and two are very distinct, different words, yet they seem confusing to many.

To:

“To” is a very simple word, used in a variety of contexts in a sentence.

It can be a preposition, e.g., I went to the market, Hold on to me, I ate to my heart’s content, etc.

It can be used as an infinitive verb phrase. For example:

I had to let go

She sat down to think.

You ought to respect the rule.

Too:

“Too” is also a very simple word that simply means “also”/”in addition, “in excess,” or “extra.”

“Too” is an adverb.

Examples:

“I want to help,” said Piglet. “Me, too,” said Pooh. (Meaning= also)

That diamond ring is too expensive.  (Meaning = excessively)

I love you too. (Meaning = also)

The trick is to remember to use “too” (with an additional “o”) whenever the word should mean “in addition”. For all other usages, however, use “to.”

Example: Teddy is going to eat a pie. Shelly is going to eat a pie too.

Two:

“Two” is a number, commonly written in words (like all other numbers) if it is mentioned in single digit. It can be a noun or an adjective.

Examples:

I have two children.

The number she chose was two.

The vendor has two more shops to visit.

Sentence with to, too, and two:

Sarah wanted to go to the beach. Paul wanted to go, too. So, the two went together.